We are contemporaries of the unexpected development of technology, technical sciences, physics of particles and high energies, and some other scientific fields. In this general scientific and technological progress, astronomy seems to have a particularly visible place. This ancient science, one of the oldest, if not the oldest (excerpts of the poem of the same name from the 8th/7th century BC have been preserved; it was studied even in the school of Pythagoras), really experiences stellar moments. The last three decades of its rise can be most accurately described by Hesiod's term golden age, which from its original mythological meaning became a metaphor for an exceptional period in the history of a city, state, civilization, national literature, art, philosophical school. As the beginning of a new era in its millennial history.
The extremely rapid and great advancement of technology has made available a variety of observation equipment. Never in history has there been an opportunity to observe the sky with so many different "eyes", not only different in number but also in characteristics. Gravitational wave detectors have recently joined the numerous telescopes that continuously observe "stars" from the Earth and from space in the electromagnetic spectrum, and "somewhat" before that from the depths of our planet (mines and ice), cosmic neutrino detectors also collect, for astronomers and physicists, valuable information about these strange particles.
TESLA What is the name Tesla?
From measuring unit to electric car
For many companies in our country and in the world, carrying Tesla's name meant a matter of pride, prestige, but always also of expressing great respect for the great work left behind by the Serbian-American scientist, engineer and inventor. At the same time, many brands took, and many still bear the name "Tesla". To this list should be added the societies around the world that bear Tesla's name and promote his work through various activities, exhibitions and conferences, as well as the awards and recognitions they award to his successful followers.
During his lifetime, Nikola Tesla received numerous and significant awards, medals and decorations, as well as honorary doctorates from numerous American and European universities. Although he certainly deserved several Nobel Prizes for his discoveries and numerous technological inventions and innovations, and he did not receive any, his name is still crowned with the greatest glory that a scientist can acquire. By the decision of the 11th General Conference for Weights and Measures, held in Paris from October 11 to 20, 1960, a Resolution was adopted by which the unit of magnetic induction in the International System of Units is called the tesla.
MANUFACTURING IN SPACE Near tomorrow
Made in space
Space production means the production of goods in space, in weightless conditions, often but not necessarily, in the vacuum of space. The term orbital manufacturing is also used, given that low Earth orbit is the only current realistic target for establishing sustainable manufacturing facilities in space.
It should be kept in mind that all the artificial satellites used by humanity are located in low Earth orbit, and there is also the problem of space debris. The reasons for moving entire branches of industrial production outside our planet are certainly of an ecological nature, but the specific conditions of space production, above all the absence of gravity, enable production techniques that are not possible on the surface of the Earth, which is a great advantage.
For example, the crystallization process takes place differently in the absence of gravity, and the resulting crystals very often have better characteristics than those obtained by the same process on the Earth's surface. Also, space conditions allow mixing of substances that cannot be mixed on the Earth's surface. If a spherical shape of a substance is required for a technological process or application, the microgravity in Earth's orbit is the ideal environment for it. Finally, temperature extremes, from the absolute zero of space to the high temperatures due to exposure to solar radiation, may be useful for technological procedures in orbit.
MATHEMATICS 75 years of the Society of Mathematicians of Serbia
It started with Alas
This year, the Society of Mathematicians of Serbia (DMS), in the year of celebrating its 75th anniversary, was awarded two prestigious awards, one after the other: the Saint Sava Award and the Gold Medal for Merit. As the president of the Society, prof. Dr. Miroslav Marić proudly points out that it is an indicator of the work, persistence, professionalism and team spirit of all members of the Society.
After returning from Paris from his studies, the great mathematician Mihailo Petrović Alas was immediately hired as a professor at the Great School, the forerunner of the University of Belgrade. That event was of exceptional importance for Serbian science, especially mathematics. Alas conceived and implemented studies modeled after the École Normale in Paris, probably the best in the world at the time, bringing a new spirit to the Department of Mathematics. Great merits for the establishment of the so-called In addition to Mihail Petrović Alas, the Belgrade School of Mathematics and then the University of Belgrade also has the mathematician Bogdan Gavrilović.
With the founding of the Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia, continuity was achieved with the "Mathematical Club" (1926), and then, in cooperation with mathematicians from other areas, the "Yugoslavian Mathematical Society" was founded (1937).
MEDICINE Genetic screening
Why treat when it can be prevented
The old saying that "prevention is better than cure" today takes on a completely new meaning, thanks to scientific research and technical-technological tools in the field of molecular genetics and genomics, which enable medicine to strengthen its preventive powers. Among them is genetic screening, which the head of the Laboratory at Acibadem Bel Medic, Ph.D. Sonja Šuput, considers a new level of health hygiene and a completely new approach to one's own health.
Will our closest descendants, instead of seeing a doctor as we know them today, actually go to a "genetic consultant", who will advise them on how to prevent any health problem based on genetic screening? Or, if a health problem occurs at all, will medicine "tailor" completely personalized therapies, according to the genetic profile and individual biology of each patient? And, is this a futuristic scenario or has medicine already stepped into the future - in the field of preventive, and especially personalized or precise medicine, which is evolving very quickly?
A story of tens of millions of years
Like many other fossils, rhinoceroses are an interesting subject for research. Numerous findings show that a large number of species of these mammals lived in the past, some of which in terms of body shape and size do not resemble modern ones at all. A large number of taxa are mentioned in the literature, usually in the form of lists of species or genera or with other incomplete data, which is not enough to assess their age, evolution and distribution. During 2020, a project was started to collect information about the extinct rhinos of the Old World (Africa, South Asia and North Eurasia). This unique database aims to provide a list of all Neogene and Quaternary sites of the Old World where fossils have been found.
In the world of dinosaurs that ruled during the Mesozoic, there was neither space nor conditions for animals like large mammals. When the last great extinction occurred, at the boundary between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, there were no longer many organisms on Earth. The global climate became more and more favorable, so another world arose and occupied empty ecological niches. The time of mammals had come, among which there were relatives of modern rhinoceroses - the largest land mammals that ever walked the Earth.
GEOLOGY Earth's mantle
A layer about which little is known
A recent geological study showed that the layer of the Earth's mantle 150 km deep, unlike the rest of it - is softer. Most of the Earth's mantle is known to be hot and solid; then the rocks deform more slowly instead of cracking, as is the case with cooler rocks in the Earth's crust. And according to the aforementioned research, there are layers of molten rock approximately 150 km below the Earth's surface.
Discovering a layer of molten rock can help researchers better understand how tectonic plates "float" on top of this layer of mantle, say geologists from the University of Texas at Austin. Molten rock is in the asthenosphere, the upper mantle layer that lies 80 to 200 km below the Earth's surface. The only way to peer into this layer of the mantle is through seismic waves originating from earthquakes. Researchers can detect the waves at seismic stations set up around the world, looking for subtle changes in wave formation that indicate what types of materials the waves have traveled through.
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