Three hundred million people in the world live in forest areas, and the survival of 1.6 billion inhabitants of our planet is directly dependent on forests. Forests are home to a huge number of plants and animals, many of which are still waiting to be discovered.
Data from 2020 (FAO: Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020) show that forests in the world occupy 4.06 billion hectares (40.6 million square kilometers), i.e. about 31 percent of the Earth’s land surface. This would mean that every inhabitant of our planet "takes" about 5000 m2 of forest area - but it must be taken into account that they are not evenly distributed throughout our planet.
More than half of the Earth's forest cover is in five places: in the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States, and China, and two-thirds (66 percent) of the forest covers 10 countries.
THEORIES ABOUT THE UNIVERSE
From the Big Bang to the empty future
Where did the material that created the Big Bang come from, i.e. what event created that material? "The last star will cool down and fade. The universe will become a void again, without light and life ", warned the physicist Brian Cox. The growing fading of the last star is just the beginning of an infinitely long dark era. All the matter will be swallowed by black holes, which will then evaporate in barely noticeable light. The space will continue to expand until that dim light becomes incapable of any interaction. What will happen then? Some cosmologists believe that the previous cold, dark and empty universe will become the source of another Big Bang.
If in an attempt to explain this we rely on the origin of stable matter composed of atoms or molecules - this was not the case in the Big Bang or in later times. The first atoms were formed from simpler particles, when conditions allowed the complex matter to be stable and when these atoms merged into heavier elements within stars.
Possible forms of life in the cosmos
The hottest spots on the path of searching for extraterrestrial life forms are natural satellites in the outer solar system, and each of them has liquid oceans under its icy surface. There is Saturn's natural satellite Titan, which hides a thick layer of saltwater beneath an icy surface dotted with lakes of liquid hydrocarbons. Titan's brother Enceladus also discovered his subterranean sea with geyser-like jets erupting from crevices near the South Pole. Jets have also been observed with Jupiter's satellite Europa, which boasts deep water larger than all the oceans on Earth combined. Each of these extraterrestrial aquatic sites can be a place of "other genesis", i.e., the appearance of life as it originated on our planet billions of years ago.
Multiple interplanetary missions are currently underway, the purpose of which is for astrobiologists to discover something other than water on these satellites, ie the chances of inhabitation or nuances in the geochemical conditions necessary for the formation and progress of living beings. NASA's Europa Clipper spacecraft, for example, could begin its orbital exploration of the mysterious Jupiter satellite by 2030. Another mission, a nuclear-powered drone called the Dragonfly, is set to land on Titan as early as 2036. years. As impressive as these missions may sound, they are only an introduction to future efforts that will "rush" even more directly to possible life outside our planet. However, how will astrobiologists know how to recognize life if they spot it on these strange sunless worlds, which are so like our world?
Thanks to the continuous economic and technological rise of its economy, the People's Republic of China has created the basis for an ambitious space program which, according to the achieved results, is closer to the achievements of countries with greater experience in space research. China is the third cosmic power (after the USSR-Russia and the USA) to launch cosmonauts (Chinese: taikonauts) into Earth orbit with its funds. Her first spaceship "Shenzhou 5" made 14 orbits around the Earth in 2003, with one taikonaut.
China approached the conquest of space very cautiously and relied on proven technical solutions and experiences of others, above all Russia. The "Shenzhou" spacecraft was designed based on the concept of the Russian "union" (increased by 15%), and the Russian spacesuit was also used. At that time, China's space ambitions were modest: it planned to join the ISS international orbital station and send its taikonauts on the "Shenzhou" ship to the Russian part of the station, to which a smaller Chinese module would be added.
How is involuntary urinary incontinence treated in women?
The inability to hold urine when sneezing, coughing, or other physical exertion - stress urinary incontinence - is a source of discomfort for many women and men, and in women, it is the most common form of urinary incontinence, one of the urinary disorders characterized by involuntary urination. This problem is three times more common among women than among men, due to the weakening of the muscles and connective tissue of the pelvic floor, that is, the weakening of physical support to organs located in the pelvic cavity, including the urethra and bladder. However, its consequences can be serious psychological problems, such as depression, since people who struggle with this problem often choose silence and self-isolation as a way to hide how much reluctant urination disturbs their daily lives.
Dr. Nikola Matavulj, the gynecologist at the Acibadem Bel Medic General Hospital in Belgrade, an expert in urogynecological pathology, is convinced that this, the almost taboo topic can be demystified by informing women about ways to treat stress incontinence, especially information about one-day surgical therapy, that in last years has become a gold standard” and treats this condition quite successfully.
Digital mammography - the key to early detection
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of death from malignant diseases among women around the world. According to the World Health Organization (Globocan research), in 2020, breast cancer climbed to the top of the list of the most common cancers for the first time; 2.3 million new cases of the disease were registered worldwide that year; 685,000 women died. Today, breast cancer is successfully treated, but it should be detected at the earliest possible stage - screening mammography, or a preventive ultrasound/mammography examination by a qualified radiologist. Prim. dr sc med. Magdalena Radović, a radiology specialist at Acibadem Bel Medic, a top expert in breast diagnostics, points out the importance of the most modern diagnostic algorithm in detecting breast tumor changes, as well as the advantages of sophisticated diagnostic equipment used in this renowned Belgrade hospital.
Dangerous but invisible
Mimicry and aposematism are examples of evolutionary adaptation to improve the chances of survival. Natural selection is a phenomenon that causes evolutionary adaptation, so biologists have defined adaptation as a characteristic that developed from natural selection. Mimicry and aposematism are very important features of the living world and in a way are part of the defense system, created to deceive possible predators - although they also help predators to more easily catch their prey.
Mimicry (Greek: mimeomai - I imitate) is the ability of some species of animals, even plants, to occasionally or constantly adjust their appearance to the environment, as to protect themselves from natural enemies. Hiding is not unique to those fleeing predators - many predators have also developed this ability to sneak up on prey as easily as possible. The use of camouflage is not limited to a specific group of animals. On the contrary, almost all animals use it - mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians, insects. Slower, weaker, and smaller among them must find ways to survive as long as possible, increasing the chances of reproduction, and thus, the survival of the species.
An old house for a new age
The collection of minerals and rocks of the Faculty of Mining and Geology
at the University of Belgrade is the oldest museological collection in Serbia. Sigmund August Wolfgang von Herder.Itis,
above all, a teaching-scientific base of the faculty, but also a place where educators gladly bring preschoolers
who are enchanted by the mysterious world since the "skeleton" of our planet was made.
The collection of minerals and rocks of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade is located on the fourth floor of the Faculty of Chemistry,
University of Belgrade. The most representative samples of geological treasures of Serbia and the whole world are exhibited in glass showcases, located in
one large room.In addition to the exhibition work, there is a so-called central collection.
It mainly houses examples brought from the field and serves as a basis for various studies, but also as material evidence of the test carried out that may
be necessary for some future research. Representative specimens of different types of rock are also kept in the Collection, and there are two classrooms
containing rock samples intended for students to practice.Last November, the Pedagogical Museum in Belgrade marked 125 years of existence, opening as many as four exhibitions: "School Fashion through the Ages", "Milan Kašanin - in the Shadow of Glory", "Famous Women in Serbian Literature" and "Why I Love Serbia". In this way, the Museum presented the diverse and rich material at its disposal and addressed "youth of all ages."
The history of the Pedagogical Museum faithfully reflects the history of Serbia, its culture, and society. This museum, which began its existence as a school museum, and received its current name at the end of the 1960s, was completely destroyed in both world wars. It was founded by the Association of Teachers of Serbia with the aim of "collecting and storing teaching aids and everything else related to primary school, which has pedagogical and historical values for the school and teachers."
Since its founding in 1896, it has been located at the same location as the Primary School "St. Sava" in Vracar, and in 1969 it moved to Uzun Mirkova 14, near Kalemegdan.
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